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This is a list of some Philosophical and religious teachings and concepts which had an influence on martial arts.
The list is on page 24 of "Tae Kwon Do: Korean Martial Art" by Professor Eugene A. Humesky, which was copyright in 1975, with a revised edition in 1989. This page is the property of
Professor Eugene A. Humesky and the Universal Tae Kwon Do Brotherhood, Inc.
- YAHWEH -- Supreme Being, God (Hebrew)
- CHRISTIAN GOD -- One Without Name, "I am what I am."
- TAO -- The Way, First Principle, Cosmic Order, Nature (Chinese)
- ALLAH -- Supreme Being, One, God (Islam, Muslims)
- BRAHMA -- Creator
- VISHNU -- Provider, maintainer ------- Holy Trinity, Hinduism
- SHIVA -- Destroyer
- GOD THE FATHER
- GOD THE SON (Jesus Christ) ------ Holy Trinity, Christianity
- GOD THE HOLY GHOST, SPIRIT
- SIDDHARTA GUATAMA (Siddha - Perfect Being) -- Indian Prince (560-480 B.C.)
- BUDDHA -- The Enlightened One, Founder of Buddhism
- CONFUCIUS -- K'ung-Fu-Tzu or Ch'iu kung -- Chinese philosopher (557-479 B.C.) Supporter of Chou people of China. Founder of Confucianism. K'ung -- philosopher. To him is accredited one of the greatest literary works, the book I-Ching (Ee-Cheeng) of The Book of Divination ("I" - The One, Tae; The Nameless and the Formless One; Change; The Will, Purpose, Idea.) The "Five Classics" by Confucius are:
- Book of Changes (Yi-King)
- Book of History (Shu-King)
- Book of Odes (Shiu-King)
- Book of Rites (Li-King): political, social and ethical themes.
He is also the author of "Four Books" or "The Books of Four Principles" (or Shus). These are:
- Analects (Lun-Yu) - digested conversations of Confucius, containing chiefly the sayings or aphorisms of the Master
- Ta-Hsio - teachings of adults
- The Chung-Yung -- doctrine of the Man, teaching avoidance of all extremes
- Meng-Tse -- latinized as Mencius - containing conversations and opinions of Mencius, the greatest of the diciples of Confucius.
KUNG -- Accomplishment, which is of benefit to the people (Monism).
KUNG -- respect, Courtesy, Politeness, Expression of reverence and seriousness ("Chin"). "Kung" refers to expression, while "Chin" refers to action.
FU -- Correspondence, especially between man and the universe, the
macrocosm / microcosm relationship.
FAN or FU -- The greatest of all laws underlying the phenomenal change, stating that if anything moves to an extreme degree, the result will be change in the opposite direction to the same degree. This result is called "reversion" or "return" (Lao-Tzu).
TZU -- Parental love, Kindness, Affection.
LAO-TZU -- Chinese philosopher (6th Century B.C.), contemporary of Kung-Fu-Tzu and his firm opponent. He wrote the book "Tao-Teh-King" (The Canon of Reason and Virtue), which is now considered sacred. Founder of Taoism, philosophy which concerns the relationship between man and God (Tao).
CANON -- Any literary work, which obeys any norm or rules in the logical process.
MENCIUS -- Meng-Tzu, Chinese philosopher (371-289 B.C.). Pupil of Tzu-Azu, the grandson of Kung-Fu-Tzu (Confucius).
HUN -- Active, positive part of the soul (Chin). Hun is the essence of man's vital energy, "Chi." Power of breathing, intelligence, as opposed to "P'o" which is man's physical nature, bodily movements ("Hun"--psychic part and "P'o"-physical part of human nature. Similar to "Ying" and "Yang").
WU -- Eternal world; things, objects, senses, desires.
SHU -- Principle of true manhood, benevolent exercise of the principle of human nature in relation to others.
WU SHU -- Chinese Martial Art.
CHUNG -- The mean, central self or moral being; proper principle, moral law, ultimate principle of the universe; impartiality, the inner life (honesty, loyalty).
AI -- Love. Love for all people as a practical way to social welbeing (Mo-Tzu, between 500-396 B.C.).
CHU'AN -- a)weight, standard, balance; b) power, authority, force; c) deviation from standard under certain abnormal conditions.
FA-CHIA -- Philosophers of Law
CHU'AN-FA -- The oldest Chinese martial art.
HSIN -- Good faith, one of the five cardinal Confucian virtues (Wu-Chang). (Greek "Syn")-with; "Krita"-done, made, perfected. Thus, polished or perfected ancient language of the Hindu, an equivalent to "King's English" or the German "Hoch Deutsch." Found in the oldest versions of Vedas (1500 B.C.). very transparent in structure, clear and simple in expression, the older sister of all Indo-European, old and new languages.
SUTRAS -- Earliest forms of poetry in India; aphorisms.
VEDAS -- Sacred literature in India, prior to 1,000 B.C.
UPANISHADS -- More than 100 treaties, the first Indian philosophical compositions.
SHAKTI -- The divine inner energy (Indian). Philosophy of various degrees of purity of the believers of Tantra.
TANTRA -- One of the large number of treaties in Hindu composed in the form of dialogues between Shiva and Durga, stressing the cult and teaching the supremacy of the female principle as power or "Sakti" (Shakti).
BABA -- Affectionate name for a Holy Man (Indian).
SWAMI -- Teacher (Indian).
GURU -- (Goo-Roo) Heavy, weighty, honored. A Hindu spiritual guide.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT (356-323 B.C. -- King of Macedonia (Greece), one of the greatest conquerors of the world. He continued to support and personally to take action in the famous Olympic Games (the first was held in 776 B.C.) and was very proficient in the Greek martial art of "Pankration" (All Power).
BODHIDARMA -- Indian prince (5th Century A.D.), Founder of Zen-Buddhism in a Shaolin monastery (Sil-Lum) in the Honan province in China. The general consensus in the martial arts is that he was the founder and systemizer of the true Chinese Martial Arts. Bodhidarma was his Indian name, Tamo was his name in Chinese, and Daruma in Korean and Japanese.
BODHI -- State of Wisdom.
DHARMA -- That on which Law or Truth and Virtue are based: Law itself.
MOHAMMED (MAHAMMUD) -- The praised One (Arabic). Founder of Oslam.
ISLAM -- "To resign onself." Fatalism, acceptance of Divine Will ("Che sera-sera", "What will be will be.")
KORAN -- (In Arabic "Al Qara" or "Al Koran"). "The Book of Reading." Islamic Holy Book of Faith, said to contain the revelations of Allah, God to Mohammed.
TALMUD -- (Thalmood) An encyclopedic work in Hebrew (Aramaic, produced over the period of 800 years (300 B.C. - 500 A.D.). It consists of religious teachings and civil law and has two parts, a) The old Talmud - Mishnah (Babylonian) and b) The young Talmud - The Gemara (Palestinian; it has 2663 pages).
MIDRASH -- Writing related to the Hebrew Bible. Interpretation of Law and Homilies.
TORAH (Tora) -- A book containing the revealed Will of God in regard to Law and Conduct, Instructions, proceedings.
ZARATHUSTRA -- (Greek: Zoroaster) 6th Century B.C., Persia. Founder of Dualism (Good and Evil). Also known as Masdaism, Bah Din, Parsism, Fire Worship, Eternal fight between two gods for supremacy, Ormazd (Good) and Ahriman (Evil).
FO -- Chinese Buddhism, Foism.
LAMA -- Highest priest in Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism -- Lamaism. The Lamaist Bible is 50-60 times as large as the Christian canon.
BIBLE -- The Holy Book of the Hebrews and Christians. Consists of a) The Old Testament (Adam & Eve to Christ) -- Hebrews and Christians; b) The New testament (From Christ and after) -- Christian only.
CHI -- inner force (Chinese).
KI -- inner force (Japanese).
GHI -- inner force (Korean).
PRANA -- inner force (Indian).
ANIMA -- inner force (Latin).
SOUL -- inner force (English).
PNEUMA -- inner force (Greek) Spirit (like the Holy Ghost) as opposed to "Psyche" -- soul.
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